Wireless cellular technology is in a storm since its arrival in the 1980s. The revolution began with 1G, which refers to the first generation analog telecommunication. I hope you will not be amazed by knowing that Japan launched the first automated cellular network i.e. 1G, Soon it was replaced by 2G. The replacement of 1G was needed because it uses the analog signals where communication was due to FDMA (Frequency Divison Multiple Access).
Long distance communication was difficult in case of the analog signal and hence in 1G communication, there is an interference problem, the transmission of information is slower and the signal cannot reach over a longer distance.
So, as a replacement of 1G, 2G or second generation telecommunication technology came in the evolution field in the early 90s. This second-generation technology solved the long distance communication problem as it uses digital signals for information exchange. The biggest revolution in the 2G network is data services in mobiles which 1G network could not provide.
However, 2G is a GSM-based network, which uses TDMA technology (Time Division Multiple Access). The reason for changing FDMA to TDMA is-TDMA can easily transmit data as well as voice communication.
Now come let’s visit the GSM world in a short time.
What is GSM?
GSM is a global system for mobile communication that uses the digital cellular network for voice and data transfer. It is a second generation standard for mobile networks. At present GSM network operates on the frequency band of 900MHz-1900MHz. GSM network has given rise to many wireless networks like GPRS (non-voice service that provides wireless packet data access) and EDGE (provides faster internet service than GPRS). GSM gave the world to access the SMS service. This brought a great revolution in the telecom industry.
Under the GSM network, a user’s phone number and their voice, text, and data plans are programmed into a small chip called SIM card (subscriber identity module). This SIM card allows the users to switch from one GSM Phone to another. This resulted in the concept to bring the roaming service by the GSM network across the globe.
Whoa! Interesting! We will come up with a lot more information about GSM on our upcoming contents at eckovation.
However, for now, let us move to how cell phone tracking is done with the help of GSM.
Have you ever wondered how this tracking is done?
We know all Mobiles phones are connected to a network via SIM card. Here network means signals that connect the handset with the nearest BTS (Base Transceiver station) of the service provider. A BTS is a cellular equipment that facilitates a wireless connection between a user equipment and an operator’s network.
Any call or data transfer is done with these signals. The signals are always picked up by nearest BTS. The cell phone sends an identification signal based on a code in the SIM to the operator stations in a time interval of every few seconds. Therefore, the connection is established 24×7 between the operator’s station and the cell phone within these networks.
Now with the help of some hardware and software, it is possible to know the position and location of the BTS. The cell phone is connected to the BTS by transmitting or receiving signals. Therefore, the location of the cell phone can be computed based on a region through which it is connected to the BTS.
What if someone changes the location?
Operator’s networks are divided into locations. The SIM stores the network state information with the help of LAI (Location Area Identity). The LAI code is a mixture of three different codes- 1.MCC (Mobile country code) 2.MNC (Mobile Network Code) 3.LAC (Location Area Code).
Hence, if someone changes the location, a new LAI will be issued which will be stored in the SIM card and will be sent back to the operator with its new location and to which BTS it is connected. However, let me tell u it is not possible to locate the exact position of the cell phone. The location is shown in a region i.e. within this/that perimeter the cell phone is present.
There are also many ways to track a user’s location with the help of IMEI, GPS and etc.
In conclusion, the telecommunication sector is in an unstoppable mood of development in the technology field. Over the years it’s evolution in the cellular field is tremendous. You can see the development generation wise from 1G to 4G and soon 5G. The day is not far, where it will rule the entire world.
Last but not the least; please don’t forget to drop your comments below in the comment box.