PIC Microcontroller (usually pronounced as “pick”); is a family of microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology; derived from the PIC1650 originally developed by General Instrument’s Microelectronics Division. The name PIC initially referred to Peripheral Interface Controller, then it was corrected as Programmable Intelligent Computer. The first parts of the family were available in 1976; by 2013 the company had shipped more than twelve billion individual parts, used in a wide variety of embedded systems.
Early models of PIC had read-only memory (ROM) or field-programmable EPROM for program storage, some with provision for erasing memory. All current models use flash memory for program storage, and newer models allow the PIC to reprogram itself. Data memory is 8-bit, 16-bit, and, in latest models, 32-bit wide. Program instructions vary in bit-count by family of PIC, and may be 12, 14, 16, or 24 bits long. The instruction set also varies by model, with more powerful chips adding instructions for digital signal processing functions.
The hardware capabilities of PIC devices range from 6-pin SMD, 8-pin DIP chips up to 144-pin SMD chips, with discrete I/O pins, ADC and DAC modules, and communications ports such as UART, I2C, CAN, and even USB. Low-power and high-speed variations exist for many types.
The manufacturer supplies computer software for development known as MPLAB X, assemblers and C/C++ compilers, and programmer/debugger hardware under the MPLAB and PIC Kit series. Third party and some open-source tools are also available. Some parts have in-circuit programming capability; low-cost development programmers are available as well as high-production programmers.
PIC devices are popular with both industrial developers and hobbyists due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, availability of low cost or free development tools, serial programming, and re-programmable Flash-memory capability.
Architecture of PIC Microcontroller
- CPU (Central Processing Unit): The control unit that controls the internal and external peripherals is connected to the CPU and the accumulator is used for storing the results. It is mainly used for arithmetic operations and to take logical decisions.
- Random Access Memory (RAM): RAM is classified into two banks and each bank consists of many registers. Those registers include Special Function Registers (SFR) and General Purpose Registers (GPR).
- Read Only Memory (ROM): It is a stable memory which is used to store the data permanently. In PIC microcontroller architecture, the architecture ROM stores the instructions or program, and based on the program the microcontroller acts.
- A/D converters: This analog to digital converter is used to convert analog voltage values to digital voltage values. A/D module of PIC microcontroller consists of 5 inputs for 28 pin devices and 8 inputs for 40 pin devices.
- Timers/ Counters: PIC microcontroller has four timer/counters where it has one 8-bit timer and the remaining timers have the choice to select 8 or 16-bit mode. Timers are used for; generating accuracy actions.
- Oscillators: These are used for timing generation. It uses external oscillators like RC oscillators or crystal oscillators.
PIC Microcontroller Projects
Some of the projects that you can develop using PIC microcontrollers are:
- PIC PWM Calculator
- Library Management System Using PIC
- Emergency Vehicle Flasher Using PIC16F84
- Automated Town Water Management System Using PIC
- A Temperature Data Logger Using PIC EEPROM
- Gas Sensor Using PIC16F84A
- Prepaid Electricity Billing System
- Binary Clock Using a PIC Microcontroller
- Temperature Controller Using PIC Microcontroller
- Humidity Controller using PIC microcontroller
- Car parking monitoring system
- Solar Energy Measurement System by PIC controller
- PIC Based Greenhouse Monitoring and Controlling System
- Electronic voting machine using pic microcontroller
- Seven Segment Multiplexing using PIC18F4550 Microcontroller
- Fingerprint Based Biometric ATM Authentication System
- Android based Remotely Programmable Sequential Load Operation
- led based rolling display PIC controller
- PIC controller based security lock system
- PWM Fan Controller
- Darkroom Timer using PIC16F84 microcontroller
- Multi Robot Coordination For Swarm Robotics
- Flammable Gas & Fire Accident Prevention Project
- Workplace Alcohol Detector With Instant Reporting
- Automatic Railway Train Safety System
- Bus & Truck Drunk Driving Alert Using PIC
- Combustible Gas Detection With GSM Alert Using PIC
- Factory Worker Alcohol Detector With Automatic Machine Shutdown
- TV Remote Controlled Home Automation PIC
- Automatic Plant Irrigation Using PIC
- Monthly Electricity Billing With Bill SMS Using PIC
- Password Based Circuit Breaker Using PIC
- PIC Based Ultrasonic Radar
- Prepaid Energy Meter Using PIC
- Programmable AC Power Control Using PIC
- Robotic Vehicle Controlled By Hand Gesture Using PIC
- Automatic Elevator With Overload Alert Using PIC
- Auto Light Intensity Controller By External Light Sense Using PIC
- Android Home Automation Using PIC
- RF Based Night Vision Spy Robot Using PIC
- Human Speed Detection Project Using Pic
- IR Traffic Detection and Signal Manager Using PIC
- Liquid Level Controller System Using Ultrasonic Sensor
- PC Based Home Automation Using PIC
- Vehicle Movement Based Street Light Using PIC
- Vehicle Theft Alert & Engine Lock System Using PIC
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