Simple projects which, Engineers can do with the less funds

For an engineering student, cash crunches have always been part of our day to day life . We live with the extended canteen bills and protracted debts from our friends. However, cash crunches should not affect our project quality because project channels our theoretical knowledge into practical knowledge. Moreover,  during the interview it impresses the interviewer too.  So, let’s see simple projects Engineers can do with the less funds

Translation of Sign Language

Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are  language that use the visual means to convey meaning. Wherever communities with  deaf people exist, sign languages have developed. Signing is used primarily by the deaf . However , it is also used by individuals who have hearing disability. People suffer a lot because of their disability . They are not able to reach out. Most importantly , their talent remains untapped. Therefore this project tears the barriers between the communities.

Components Required

  1. Flex Sensors
  2. Arduino Board
  3. Gloves
  4. Resistors

Working

The purpose of the flex is to get information about user’s hand. This system captures the extent to which each of the user’s fingers are bent. How the fingers are making contact with one another. Orientation of user’s index finger and the palm of the user’s hand with respect to the surface of the earth. This subsystem receives power from the power supply module and transmits the data it collects to the micro controller for processing and interpretation according the interface of each individual sensor.

Most importantly , accurate and precise data collection and transmission by the sensor subsystem is critical to the success of the overall system. The data collected by the micro controller is manipulated to the obtained the appropriate sign as shown in the image that follows

Improvements:

The system can be interfaced with the Bluetooth module. The phone then connects with the  system interface. The phone receives the data and displays it in form of text.

 DTMF Controlled Motor Vehicle

DTMF is the acronym for Dual tone modulation frequency. Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling is an in-band telecommunication signaling system using the voice-frequency band over telephone lines between telephone equipment and other communications devices and switching centers.This project consists of simple ICs. When a person presses a key ,  it generates a tone combination of two frequencies from our keypad. In the two frequencies, one is high frequency and another one is low frequency. Decoder IC decodes these frequency into the binary sequence.

 Components Required

  • DTMF decoder IC,
  • Driver IC L293D
  • Motors

Working

DTMF decoder IC used is HT9107B. It has 18 pins.  DTMF decoder IC takes tones from DTMF decoder. The decoder IC internally, consists of operational amplifier whose output is given to prefilters to separate low and high frequencies. Code detector circuit decodes the incoming tone into 4 bits of binary data. This data at the output is directly given to the driver IC to drive the two motors. These motors rotate according to the decoded output.

The working procedure for this model is very simple. At first, the robot needs to turn ON by giving power supply of 10V battery. Now dial a mobile number connects with robot at remote location. Then after ringing the remote mobile connected with robot, it will automatically connected by Auto Answer option in mobile phone just like an internet connection established between two systems.  DTMF tones sending facility should be active between both mobiles. After connection establishment the keyboard need to use to operate the robot car in particular direction.

Improvements

In this project, the toy car is controlled by a mobile phone . The phone makes a call to the mobile phone attached to the car. In the course of a call if someone presses another button . A tone corresponding to that key is heard. This is a wireless controller toy car.

However, there is still lot of scopes to improve the stability and ability of this system. The mobile phone that makes a call to mobile phone stacked in the car act as a remote. Hence this project does not require the construction of receiver and transmitter units. This model can be a very significant device in case of the information acquisition . Humans can acquire information from places they cant reach.. This is the crucial part of the project.

Fire Alarm

A fire alarm system is number of devices working together to detect smoke, fire, monoxide or other casualty. Alarms can be either motorized bells or wall-mountable sounders or horns. They can also be speaker strobes. Which follows a  voice evacuation message . Message warns people not to use lifts . Manual activation devices can also activate the fire alarm. Various tones are present in fire alarm. It includes low, medium, and high. It depends on the country and manufacturer of the device. When there is a fire breakout in the room the temperature increases. This ultra-compact and low cost fire alarm senses fire breakout based on this fact.

WORKING

 

Transistor bc177(Q1) is used as a fire sensor .  When the temp increases,leakage current of the transistor also increases .Whenever  there is an increases in leakage current of Q1 transistor . Q2 biases as a result  .  When there is a fire breakout the transistor Q2 will be on . The emitter of Q2 connects the base of Q3 .  When Q2 is on Q3 will also be on. The transistor Q3 drives the relay which drives  the load as the indication of the fire. The diode D1 is a freewheeling diode.

There are many more projects that you can do with  less funds. The list follows the examples:-

  • Health Monitoring  System : – The project measures the vital science of the humans . All it needs is some heat beat sensors , electrodes for galvanic skin response , thermistors for temperature measurements . The projects needs less funds and is easy to make. Most importantly , the project can be done only when you have taken Digital Signal Processing.
  • Path Following Robot :- Similar to DTMF controlled vehicle . The difference is all you need is the microcontroller . Henceforth , the project becomes easier to make.
  • Security System :-  This project comes under embedded systems . The user enters the password . If the password is wrong the image gets to the owner.

In conclusion , the article mentions the projects that are simple to do .  When you decide on a project , be sure that the components are easily available.  The components can be easily found on the website like electronic components , amazon etc. Last but not the least do not forget to drop your comments.

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